Clients suffer from pain in many ways. Pain can rob clients of their lives. They may become depressed or anxious and want to end their lives. Clients are sometimes unable to do many of the things they did without pain, and this pain affects their relationships with others. This can lead to loss of employment or social issues with friends and family.
13. Pasero C, Paice JA, McCaffery M. Basic mechanisms underlying the causes and effects of pain. In: McCaffery M, Pasero C, editors. 2. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1999. pp. 15–34.
16. Page GG, Ben-Eliyahu SJ. The immuno-suppressive nature of pain.
Goldstein DH, Ellis J, Brown R, et al. Meeting proceedings: recommendations for improved acute pain services: Canadian Collaborative Acute Pain Initiative.